George Calvert

Early Life

George Calvert, the First Baron Baltimore, was an eminent English statesman and colonizer whose legacy is intricately woven into the fabric of American history. Born in Kipling, Yorkshire, England, around 1579, to parents Leonard Calvert and Alice Crossland, George Calvert hailed from a family of farmers. His quest for education led him to Trinity College at Oxford University, where he obtained his degree in 1597.

George Calvert’

After the completion of his education, Calvert became a clerk and later the private secretary to Sir Robert Cecil, a prominent statesman. He used this opportunity to immerse himself in political intrigues and develop his diplomatic acumen.

Political Career and Ennoblement

In 1605, Calvert was elected to the Parliament as a representative of Bossiney. Throughout his political career, he was an ardent supporter of King James I, and he worked diligently to strengthen the monarchy. Calvert’s dedication did not go unnoticed. He was knighted in 1617, followed by his appointment as one of the two principal Secretaries of State in 1619.

During his tenure, he was involved in many significant events, including the negotiation of a marriage alliance between Prince Charles (later King Charles I) and the Spanish Infanta. His diplomacy and loyalty to the crown continued to earn him accolades, and in 1625, King James I granted him the Irish title, Baron Baltimore of Baltimore, in County Longford, Ireland.

However, Calvert’s career took an unexpected turn when he openly declared his conversion to Roman Catholicism. This decision led to his resignation from his position as Secretary of State. Nonetheless, Calvert did not withdraw from public life and set his sights on colonial ventures.

Colonial Aspirations and Establishment of Maryland

Calvert’s interests in the New World stemmed from both financial and religious motivations. Initially, he invested in a settlement in Newfoundland, known as the Colony of Avalon. However, harsh weather conditions and religious tensions rendered the settlement unviable, prompting him to seek an alternative location for colonization.

Charter for Maryland

Calvert turned his attention to a more temperate region along the Chesapeake Bay in the New World. He petitioned King Charles I for a charter to establish a new colony, primarily as a refuge for English Catholics who faced persecution at home. Although Calvert passed away in April 1632 before the charter was officially granted, his vision did not perish with him.

His son, Cecil Calvert, the Second Lord Baltimore, carried forward his father’s ambition. The charter for the new colony, named Maryland in honour of Queen Henrietta Maria, was formalized on June 20, 1632.

Cecil Calvert’
Cecil Calvert’

Settlement and Development

The first group of settlers, led by George Calvert’s younger son, Leonard Calvert, set sail aboard the Ark and the Dove and reached Maryland in March 1634. The colony, founded on principles of religious tolerance and economic opportunity, flourished under the leadership of the Calvert family.

Maryland quickly grew to become a prosperous colony, attracting settlers from various backgrounds and religious affiliations. The Maryland Toleration Act of 1649, passed under the Calverts, was one of the early laws that granted religious freedom to Christians, embodying the spirit that George Calvert had envisioned for his colony.


George Calvert’s legacy as a visionary and pioneer in colonial America endures. His establishment of Maryland as a haven for religious freedom stands as a testament to his unwavering commitment to tolerance and inclusivity. The Colony of Maryland, which subsequently became the State of Maryland, has played a pivotal role in the development of the United States of America.

A Beacon of Religious Tolerance

George Calvert’s vision for Maryland as a refuge for Catholics laid the groundwork for an early experiment in religious freedom. The Maryland Toleration Act, instituted under his son’s governance, set a precedent for the acceptance of religious diversity. This was a harbinger of the values that would later be enshrined in the United States Constitution.

Economic Contributions

Furthermore, the economic prosperity of Maryland, guided by the policies and management of the Calvert family, has been significant. The cultivation of tobacco, established during the early years of the colony, contributed to the wealth of Maryland and was integral to the economic development of Colonial America.

Civic Institutions and Governance

The governance structure established by the Calverts in Maryland, particularly the principles of representative government, also laid the foundation for democratic institutions in America. Maryland was one of the first colonies to implement a bicameral legislature, a model which was later adopted by the United States Congress.

Continuing Influence

Today, George Calvert’s legacy is celebrated throughout Maryland and beyond. The state’s flag bears the coat of arms of the Calvert family, and numerous landmarks and institutions, including Baltimore City, are named in honor of the Calverts.